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Francis Simonh M. Bries (2012-24817, MA Psychology) Psychology 282: ReflectionsÃ¢â¬âA Theory of Heuristic and Systematic Information Processing 14 February 2017 Heuristic and Systematic Processing: When Do People Think? As opposed to attribution theory s emphasis on human rationality in the search for the causes of behavior, the theory of heuristic and systematic information processing takes a stance on the opposite end: Humans, with all things being equal, could not be bothered to think deeper than what can be concluded using learned shortcuts and easily accessed information. The latter heuristic processing is preferred in most situations as it does not require cognitive effort because of its automaticity yet nevertheless arriving atÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦No matter how much voters are requested to use information, conscience, or whatever form of rationality to decide on matter of national interest, an uninformed and unmotivated electorate would always resort to emotional appeals, endorsements, and easily accessible cuesÃ¢â¬âas predicted by the theory. Perhaps, even when extreme accuracy is required by the situation, the motivation to consider information systematically more significantly determines when people would engage in the latter. As such, the current theory would come as an unpleasant surprise to people who obstinately cling to their hopes on the absolute rationality of humanity. With the theory developed within Western psychology and their cultureÃ¢â¬â¢s history of the Enlightenment, scientific thinking, and philosophical introspection, the notion of an automatic heuristic process operating separately from more conscious cognition appears unacceptable. However, some of the heuristic cues introduced in the attitude studies that served as the basis of the theory may be acceptable for collectivist cultures. Factors such as audience response and consensus information are inherently central to cultures where interdependence and unified perspectives are expected (i.e. that the perspectives of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s community must be considered alongside oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own). As such, whereas an individualist culture would cite these variables as
Sunday, May 17, 2020
Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1431 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2019/02/20 Category Sociology Essay Level High school Tags: Illegal Immigration Essay Did you like this example? The purpose of this paper is to examine a peer reviewed article discussing the purpose of the article, methods used, the findings and the conclusion of the study. I will then share some of my own personal views on the topic and ways I would suggest future research. The article I selected is Undocumented Immigration, Drug Problems and Driving under the Influence in the United States 1990-2014 by Michael T. Light, PhD, Ty Miller, MS, and Brian C. Kelly, PhD. This paper will review how undocumented immigration has affected specifically four different problem areas, driving under the influence (DUI) deaths, DUI arrests, drug arrests and drug overdoses that resulted in death. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Effects of Immigration" essay for you Create order The data used in this study was collected from 1990 to 2014 from several different resources. The Federal Bureau of Investigations Uniform Crime Reports provided the information for the two types of arrests being examined (DUI and drug related). National Highway Traf?c Safety AdministrationÃ¢â¬â¢s Fatality Analysis Reporting System provided the information for the fatalities that resulted from alcohol related accidents. The information regarding deaths related from drug overdoses came from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Underlying Cause of Death database. The authors then chose to pull information from two separate sources, Center for Migration Studies and the Pew Research Center, for their data on undocumented immigration. A fixed-effects regression model was used to examine the association between undocumented immigrants who are involved with drugs and drunk driving. The study was set up using four separate dependent variables. Each section used two of the variables. First, they chose to use the rate of drug related arrests and the rate of drug related overdoses. The second test they used the same line of information, they used the rate of DUI arrests and the rates accidents resulting in death were the driver was impaired by alcohol. This impairment is defined by having a blood alcohol content of .08 or higher. They chose to set up the data this way because it would rule out separate factors and provide a more accurate account of the use of drugs and alcohol. Once the dependent variables were established, they then adjusted for other factors that would potentially skew the data such as the percentage of the population that is older then 25 that did not have a high school degree, the different statics in the labor market (unemployment, types of jobs). Once all the data was collected and evaluated, it showed that the undocumented immigration did not bear an increase on the rate of the four measured statistics (drug related arrests, drug overdose related deaths, DUI arrests, and DUI fatalities). The results concluded undocumented immigrants were not linked to an increase in drug arrests, drug overdose deaths, DUI arrests DUI fatalities. The research does suggest that undocumented immigrants contribute to the reduction in these metrics. There was a significant decrease in DUI arrests, drug arrests and drug overdose fatalities and the difference in DUI fatalities did not reflect a change. This indicates that the DUI fatalities are not affect by immigrants that enter the United States illegally. I do not find the results from the study surprising or shocking at all. I feel that immigrants in general, legal or illegal, who are entering the United States are choosing to do so because they are trying to escape poverty or other difficult situations in their home countries. Those that are coming here illegally are truly afraid of being caught and sent back so they try their best to follow all the rules and to live a life unnoticed. I believe that because these immigrants are afraid and living a life in fear that every day could be their last here that they are living more carefully and do not want to risk being arrested. They want to avoid the possibility of getting in trouble and deportation. I believe that people who take advantage of the legal system and the opportunities provided to them are not those who come to the United States but are people who are natural born citizens who feel privileged. The study itself has many factors that can limit the information that is being provided. They do not have a way of being 100% accurate in the head count for undocumented people. I do feel that because they cannot say with that 100% accuracy that the information while creditable cannot be completely reliable. Another factor that sets limitations is the policing behavior, a few questions that come up for me are as follows, Are the police more concerned with other problems in the community and not paying as close of attention to these aspects? Are they potentially taking brides to keep those arrests Ã¢â¬Å"under the tableÃ¢â¬ ? Are there certain areas where race plays a bigger role. Are officers more racial motivated to single out who they think looks like an illegal immigrant? I would like to see if the statistics of the race of the arresting officer are affecting the outcome. Are Caucasian officers harsher to undocumented people? Do African American officers offer more of a warning system and leniency? I would also suggest for further researched to be done involving the type of arrests that are occurring and the amount of arrests that happen. The severity of the drug charges can have a wide range from a small amount to a much larger quantity. Is there a controlled substance that is more likely to be involved in these arrests (marijuana, cocaine, prescription drugsÃ¢â¬ ¦)? Some states are now legalizing recreational marijuana is this research able to flex to this new law and able to pull out any violations that are no longer valid for the future. Would these new laws hold any bearing on the current outcome? Another limitation I feel would be if and how many of the arrests are done on immigrants that have ties to cartel and other gang related activities. This I feel could potential throw off data because their sole purpose for being in the United States is to be moving and distributing drugs compared to the immigrants who are here to join the workforce to try and better their lives but may use drugs for recreational use. There would need to be a way to distinguish in the study or even eliminate these gang related types of arrests from the overall results because I feel they do no properly represent the data that is being presented. I did decide to choose this article because I feel the current situation in the United States has been more hostile towards the immigrants that are choosing to enter the country illegally. Right now, between different media outlets not showing all the facts and people on social media not always believing the correct information, the hatred for illegals is an ever-increasing situation. I feel that this article is a way to show with scientific fact that undocumented immigrants are not harming society in a way that some people are choosing to believe. I personally have had family members who came here illegally, they did not come here to wreak havoc on a country that was not where they were born. They risked coming here with hope that they could have a better life then what was available for them in their home country. I do not agree that coming here illegally is the correct way, but I think I have more sympathy for people in these types of situations because of my personal history and ties with it. The United States was once meant to be a country that people could come too when they sought out a better life. Seen as a symbol of freedom and a beacon of hope. It is wish for many people to live an American dream, I do still believe that this is a country for everyone. Overall this study provided solid information that illegal immigrants are not causing an increase in drug arrests, drug overdose fatalities, driving under the influence arrests, and DUI fatalities. In fact, the from the data collected and researched from 1990 to 2014 it can be concluded that they have had a more positive effect on these four different areas during this time that the research pulled from, significantly with drug arrests, drug overdose deaths and DUI arrests. I do believe that this study as previously stated has several different limitations, but it also has many factors that can be used to better provided additional details and expand upon the original results but as it is now it is a great base for understanding the effects that illegal immigrants have had on the United States. Effects Of Immigration - Free Essay Example Sample details Pages: 19 Words: 5801 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? 1.1 Overview The dissertation aims to thoroughly investigate the main influencing factors that do inspire skilled manpower from Bangladesh to immigrate to other countries especially to first world countries. Simultaneously, the dissertation also purposes to identify, analyse and establish the significance of the ultimate impact of such migration on the country, notably on its business ventures. The economy of Bangladesh is highly dependent on the export of human resources and foreign exchange associated with their remittance. However, there has been a significant change in the global labour market in recent times due to a demand for skilled and educated manpower, which is why Bangladesh is now facing stiff competition from new entrants such as Vietnam, Cambodia and Nepal in this traditional market. While Bangladesh government is trying to create skilled workers and export them, highly skilled professionals are now with the changed scenarios migrating in groups leaving their positions vacant, which is a great concern for the government. Due to such migration, government of Bangladesh as well as private organizations are lacking sufficient and trained high-skilled professionals to fulfil their vacant positions and ultimately suffering from mismanagement. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Effects Of Immigration" essay for you Create order As is the scenario, Bangladesh is a third-world country located in the South Asia, where almost half of the population lives under the extreme poverty line announced by the UN. Being a poor and over populated country, the country is now only a developing one and modern civic facilities here in this country are therefore almost absent or insufficient. The country badly lacks in providing most basic needs such as food, housing and treatment and let alone education, security, and welfare. In spite of remarkable growth in the GDP, per capita income is only about $300 in the country. Besides, with the social disorder, political unrest and ever increasing violence in the society, only a few people have real wish to live here. Above all, environmental threat such as desertification, sea-level rise, seasonal change and natural disasters etc. add up fuel in them to jump off the country. It is warned that if the continual rise in the world-temperature carries on, almost a-third of the country will go under water with the rise in the sea-level by 2040. Eventually, citizens of all walks of the country are migration-oriented and each year, a lot of people shift themselves to the richer countries in order to avail themselves of the economic and social opportunities. However, many others migrate to be with their family members who have already migrated to other countries. Education, being another reason for leaving country, is also responsible for international migration as once students go abroad to pursue their studies, they ultimately settle there and do not bother to return. However, these migrations have a huge impact on the country especially on its smooth supply of killed workforce in a number of sectors due to deserting many positions all on a sudden. Eventually, different sectors suffer much lacking proper manpower. It is a fact that in Bangladesh, there are about 150 millions of people, but no right people in the right place due the shortage of proper training and f requent migration. 1.2 Rationale In their election manifesto, one of the two largest political parties, Bangladesh Awami League, clearly announced that short, medium and long term plans will be made and implemented for poverty reduction, efficient management for quick industrialization that can provide employment, speedy expansion of stock market, maintenance of law order and discipline, elimination of bribe and corruption and administrative difficulties, avoidance of political influence, creation of an investment friendly environment and a competitive market system, adoption of innovative technology, and provision of infrastructural facilities that are able to attract entrepreneurs and expand domestic market. In order to encourage investment by local and foreign entrepreneurs and expatriate Bangladeshis, the ONE-STOP facility will be made effective by simplifying legal and procedural formalities. Measures will be put in place to protect indigenous industries. Development of IT industry, strengthening of RMG and textile sectors and expansion of food processing, pharmaceuticals, leather, chemical products, toys, jewellery and furniture industries will be given priority. Special initiative will be taken for alternative use of jute and to make jute industry viable. Small and handicraft industries and agro-based industry will be encouraged and will be given all cooperation in the expansion of markets at home and abroad. Expansion in tourism sector, increase in labour export, and investment of remittance received from expatriate Bangladeshis in productive sectors will be ensured. All above targets and project implementations need sufficiently skilled, highly educated and experienced workforce. However, once the present government started implementation procedure, they have been facing the problem of not having the right people in the right place in almost all sectors due to frequent migration which is why both the government and private organizations are now looking into the rationale of the frequent migrations of their employees that has been affecting their targets terribly. According to Office for National Statistics (UK) report on International Migration, Bangladesh, being one of the smallest countries in the world, is one of the top 10 countries of migrants (Source: Table C(ii): Top 10 countries of last of next residence of migrants who are non-British citizens, IPS only, 20052006 combined). Therefore, it is indeed justified to study the reasons of skilled peoples immigration from Bangladesh and its effects and aftereffects on organizations while they are recruiting senior especially officials for project implementation. 1.3 The Research Questions The basic aims of the research questions are establish motivating factors that lead thousands of people over the world leave their homeland every year to journey to the other countries from their countries of origins. They simultaneously aim at establishing the deep-rooted impacts of such migration on companies, organizations and recruiters in their recruitment leaving long-term significance on the country. They research questions are stated below. 1. Do Bangladeshi people leave their native country? The very first question aims to establish a general trend among Bangladeshi people i.e. skilled workforce starting from forecast to find out its way to accumulate more obvious secondary data to be processed based on other primary and secondary data found in the relevant field. 2. Why do they plan to leave their native country? The second question aims to establish typical reasons for Bangladeshi skilled employees to leave their jobs and migrate to other countries. It also aims to organize the factors sequentially from more obvious to less determining the burning issues with employees working in the country. 3. What factors lead skilled and educated employees to plan their migrations? The third question is a less general one concentrating on only educated and skilled employees to demonstrate their motivational factors to migration to a different country. 4. How does it impact recruitment process? The final question is the core one that will seek out to demonstrate all positive and negative impacts of such migration on the recruitment process as well as the country. It will determine the impacts that skilled-workers migrations can cause and will be mostly answered using processed data supplied by different agencies, organizations and recruiters. Firstly, all primary data from individuals will help us here to identify the relevant respondents perspectives and then finally secondary data will assist them to intensify. Hypothesis The hypotheses for the dissertation are as follows. H 1. A lot of Bangladeshi people migrate from their country. H 2. Mostly skilled and educated people are migrating from the country. H 3. Employed people who are not satisfied with their salaries and/or other opportunities are migrating. H 4. Those skilled employees are migrating to developed 1st world countries that beckon better facilities. H 5. The majority of the migrating people are deserting their positions in Bangladesh. H 6. This migration is affecting the recruitment process in Bangladeshi a lot. 1.4 Definition of Related Terms In the very beginning of the discussion, it is really important to define the terms that are embedded in the topic. As we see in the topic, the words migration, employees, employers and recruitment as well as their related terms are to be defined for better presentation. It is to be noted that the terms are sometimes replaced by their synonyms which are given below just after their definitions. 1.5.1 Migration: Different organizations have defined the word in various ways. According to the United Nations, it is simply a transfer lasting more than one year (Anna Karenina: The Brain-drain in Lithuania, p10). However, there are more appropriate definitions of the word are found which are appended below. The web-based definitions of the word are (https://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=migration) (n) migration (the movement of persons from one country or locality to another) (n) migration (a group of people migrating together [especially in some given time period]) (n) migration ((chemistry) the nonrandom movement of an atom or radical from one place to another within a molecule) S: (n) migration (the periodic passage of groups of animals (especially birds or fishes) from one region to another for feeding or breeding) Again, online thesaurus defines it like the following (https://www.thefreedictionary.com/migration: Noun1. migration the movement of persons from one country or locality to another Related terms: emigration, out-migration, expatriation migration from a place (especially migration from your native country in order to settle in another) immigration, in-migration migration into a place (especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there) movement, move, motion the act of changing location from one place to another; police controlled the motion of the crowd; the movement of people from the farms to the cities; his move put him directly in my path 2. migration a group of people migrating together (especially in some given time period) people (plural) any group of human beings (men or women or children) collectively; old people; there were at least 200 people in the audience The synonyms of the word are immigration, wandering, journey, voyage, travel, movement, shift, trek, emigration, roving, and expatriation. One of the commonest definitions of the word is as follows. Migration: the movement of persons from one country or locality to another (https://www.wordreference.com/definition/migration) What migration refers, however, can be divided into two types. One is emigration and the other immigration. Emigration typically refers to the process of people leaving a nation (Adler and Gielen) . On the other hand, immigration is the process that involves people entering and settling in a country or region to which one is not native (The Free Dictionary) . Secondly, employees refer to the persons involved in doing any job or paid work under any authority. The term employee is defined as a worker who is hired to perform a job (wordnetweb) while an employer is a person or firm that employs workers (wordnetweb) . Finally, the term recruitment refers to the process of screening, and selecting qualified people for a job at an organization or firm, or for a vacancy or the process or art of finding candidates for a post in an organization, or of recruits for the armed forces . External recruitment is the process of attracting and selecting employees from outside the organization. 1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: The main objective of the dissertation is to examine the overall status of international migration of skilled people from Bangladesh. Simultaneously, it aims at examining the influences on recruitment process due to such migration. 2. Introduction to Literature Review It is a fact that literature review is one of the most important components of any research being undertaken. The basic aim of the review is to spot or identify the current status or state of the investigation in relevant field. It also facilitates the facts and findings of others working in the same field by providing some invaluable background information and statistics. 2.1 Brief History of Migration in Bangladesh In this globalized world, the annual growth rate of the global migration increased from 1.2 per cent in 1965-1975 to 3 per cent in early 2000 (Abella, 2002). The increase in the movement of workers is indicative of increased employment opportunity in the global market. One and the same, since its inception in 1971, from Bangladesh, one of the major emigrating countries in the world, migration has enabled many people to obtain productive, fulfilling and creative work. However, for many others, it has failed to provide jobs of acceptable quality. Yet, each year a large number of people voluntarily migrate overseas for both long- and short-term employment. The earliest immigrants from the British-ruled Indian province of Bengal arrived in first-world countries during the late nineteenth century. They accompanied a small number of retired British Indian officers as either servants or workmen. During the independence of India in 1947, the old Bengal was split, and its Muslim-dominated eastern part became East Pakistan and following a struggle for independence Bangladesh separated from Pakistan in 1971. Despite political independence, and development of a clothes and textiles industry, Bangladeshis experienced a low standard of living which is why people started to seek a better life elsewhere. Thus the trend to immigrate among Bangladeshis started since the inception of the country. During the independence war, the operation of the Pakistani military in East Pakistan in 1971 caused an estimated 8 to 10 million refugees to cross the border into India in one of the great mass movements of modern times. Apart from the above, since 80s educated youth, skilled workers and executives, and unskilled workers have been migrating from the country in regular basis, mainly migrated to the Middle East and other regions. Additionally, Bangladesh have also lost some highly skilled members of the work force to Western Europe and North America. As time has progressed, the country experienced more migration of skilled employees to somewhere. During the past year, 370,000 Bangladeshis have found employment in Malaysia. It has been learnt that a further 100,000 may also be able to go within this year. This recent Reuters article places most Bangladeshi migrant workers in the Middle East, US, UK, Germany, Italy, Japan, Malaysia and Singapore (The Migration and Remittances Factbook 2008). In fact, migration to other developing countries is more prevalent than it is thought. Mr. Dilip Ratha and William Shaw have estimated in a World Bank Working Paper taking Bangladesh and India for example that Bilateral migration data estimates show 50 million skilled people born in Bangladesh live in outside. The New Nation reported recently that some 370,000 Bangladeshis have found employment in Malaysia and about 100,000 are expected to join them this year. Increasingly, immigration policies of developed countries tend to favour the entry of skilled workers, raising substantial concerns among sending countries. Among many others, the first concern is that a higher skilled content of migration is found to be associated with a lower flow of remittances and second, there is little evidence suggesting that raising the skill composition of migration has a positive effect on the educational achievements in the home country. 2.2 Number of Migrants Located in the north-eastern part of South Asia, Bangladesh lies between 2034 and 2636 north latitude and 8801 and 92 41 east longitudes. These picturesque geographical boundaries frame a low lying plain of about 1,47,570 sq. km criss-crossed by innumerable rivers and streams having population of about 120 million which makes it the eighth populous country of the world. As is stated before, the country is has been experiencing emigrated people since its inception and the rates of the university-educated peoples immigration tend to be higher than for the general population in developing countries. This is even greater for scientists, engineers, and members of the medical profession.In South Asia, the tertiary-educated peoples emigration rate from the region is more than 100 times greater than primary or secondary educated people. In 2005, total stock of emigration from Bangladesh was 4,885,704, which was 3.4% percent of the population. Among all emigrating countries in the world, the country placed 5th in that year, whereas in the year 2000, it was not in the top 10 list of tertiary educated emigration list. 2.3 Top Destinations In 2005, by a rough estimate, two of every five migrants on the globe were residing in a developing country. Most of these migrants are likely to have come from other developing countries. The extent and issues surrounding migration between developing countries, however, remain poorly understood, largely because data on migration in developing countries are incomplete and unreliable. However, as far as the destination is concern, Bangladeshi emigrants have been regularly emigrated to a selected list of countries. According to siteresources.worldbank.org, the 10 top destination countries of Bangladeshi emigrants in 2005 were India, Saudi Arabia, United Kingdom, United States, Oman, Italy, Canada, Singapore, Rep. of Korea, and Malaysia. However, the UN Population Division differs a bit. As per them, the top Immigration Countries are the US, Russia, Germany, Ukraine, France, Saudi Arabia, Canada, India, U.K., Spain, Australia, Pakistan, U.A.E, Israel, Italy, Kazakhstan, Cote dIvoire, Jo rdan, Japan, Iran, Singapore, West Bank Gaza, Ghana, Kuwait, Switzerland, Malaysia, Netherlands, Argentina, Turkey, and Uzbekistan. The following bar graph shows the details relating to those counties immigration pattern in 2005. 3. Introduction to Methodology: In order to provide a complete up-to-date analysis, both secondary and primary researches were carried out. A variety of methods were considered to find the most suitable ones collecting the specific types of data. 3.1 Secondary Research: Secondary research normally denotes an activity whereby no new original data is collected but where the research project draws an existing sources alone. Secondary data can be seen as books, journals, statistical reports from government and other document . In order to access relevant data, it was essential to use a variety of different sources of information. Majority of time was spent in learning resource centre at Thames Valley University where possible to gain access not only to textbooks, but also to a variety of magazines, journals and online databases. Very useful were search engines like EBOSCOhost and Emerald, which can pull information from a range of academic sources. Some time was also spent in Ealing Library browsing through additional text. A vast amount of articles found was Bangladeshi Language; therefore a fair amount of time was spent on translation of those texts. 3.2 Primary Research: The aim of the primary research is to seek the answer to one the key questions of this dissertation; What are the main factors/motivators affecting the decision of highly skilled labour to migrate form Bangladesh? It is very important to select the most adequate and reliable primary data collection methods. Various ways of collecting data will be discussed in this chapter as well as why have been chosen or declined or specific information collection. Primary research generally refers to that research which involves the collection of original data using an accepted research methodology. 3.2.1 Types of Research: There are two different types of research: qualitative and quantitative. Therefore, first of all it is important to make distinction between these two types of research methods. According to Clarck, Riley, Wilkie and Wood (2003) qualitative techniques rely on the skills of the researcher as an interviewer in gathering data whereas quantities methods place reliance upon the research instruments employed to gather data and analyse it. According to Jennings (2001) qualitative data is based on textual representations of the phenomenon under study, often referred to as phenomenological approach. Qualitative or inductive research commences in the empirical social world, where data about the phenomenon are gathered, and then analysed and theoretical constructions are generated. Research that utilise a qualitative methodology draws on data collection methods such as participant observations, in-depth interviews, semi structured interviews, case studies and focus groups. Veal (1992) argues that data could also be collected through informal interviewing as well as in depth interviews. Qualitative research enables researcher to highlight detailed and in depth snapshots of the participants under study. Quantitative research is grounded in the positivists social science paradigm that primary reflects the scientific method of the natural science. The quantitative approach to research usually involves statistical analysis. The data can be derived from questionnaire survey, observation or from secondary sources . The main quantitative methods for gathering data are: Questionnaires Non-participant observation Surveys Veal (1992) believes that these two approaches complement each other and even that qualitative research should be based on initial qualitative work. Webster, Stephen, Marshall and William (2004) also argue that the contrasting nature of positivism and phenomenological approaches can be used to complement each other. The feasibility of these statements can be backed up with the mixed method approach discussed by Jennings (2002), who states that this type of research is often used to gather information on the tourism phenomenon, which in some extent is migration process. 3.2.2 Data Gathering Methods: 220.127.116.11 Case Studies: Case studies are a complex research activity, which involves the through analysis of a single unit- a person, or a company. However, this method does not allow the researcher to apply theory developed to other similar cases. 18.104.22.168 Interviews: Interviews have been likened to conversations they are merely one of the many ways in which two people talk to one another . There are major advantages to using to using interviews. Researcher can collect more information and more complex information, response rate is generally very good and can use recording equipment. Also, interviewer can take a note of body language, gestures or facial expression of the interviewee . However interviews can be difficult to arrange, might be time consuming and quite costly. There is a range of interview types that can be applied when gathering information. Understand or in depth interviews are those interview where there is no formal schedule. The interviewer has the idea about the issues and might have a list of relevant topics and these are merely used as a guide . Main disadvantage about using those types of interviews is that they come up as a bit of a challenge. Interviewer has to be experienced and leas the conversation in order to gather relevant data. Veal (1992) mentions that in order to conduct a good in depth interview researcher has to have the skills of a good investigate journalist. For those who do not posses such skills, semis-structured interviews might be another option. According to Jennnings(2001) semi-structured interviews can be used by both qualitative methodologies. Those interviews still remain in the way of conversation type; however the interviewer has a prompt list of issues that focus the interaction. The main advantages of such interview are that the questions are not specifically predetermined; therefore the researcher is still able to ask further clarification on the particular issue . Also the semi-structured schedule provides a more relaxed interview setting. Due to a nature of the topic, an interview was not chosen as a method of gathering primary data. In order to complete the research many opinions have to be gathered and that can not be possibly done using interview method. Also, because the research country is quite a bit away from the UK, it would be vary difficult to match times with every interviewee and also very costly (air-ticket, accommodation, food, etc). 22.214.171.124 Focus Groups: Instead of interviewing participants individually, study participants individually, study participants are interviewed together . According to Veal (1992) groups usually comprises between 5 and 12 people. According to Jennings (2001) focus groups are used when the researcher believes that the interaction between group members will add to the richness of data collected. The main advantage of focus groups lies in the possibility between people, generation of new by the participants and the degree of flexibility to follow trends or issues. However, same as in depth interviews focus groups require an experienced facilitator to lead the discussion otherwise it may result in stronger personalities dominating the session. It was mostly the lack of experience that drove the decision of not using focus groups approach as the method for gathering information. 126.96.36.199 Observation: Observation can be participant or not participant, in either way researcher is observing the surroundings around him. In participant observation researcher becomes a participant in the process that is being studied. A participant observation raises a number of problems such as admittance to the particular site of observation and when admitted the way researcher should handle the activity . In the case participant observation is not realistic option because of the nature of research topic. Furthermore, non participant observation is not possible as the subject is not related for example to the length of the queue for breakfast, but requires educated population opinion and attitude. 188.8.131.52 Surveys: Surveys generally ask who, what, how many, or where. They tend to include relatively large samples and wide fields of study, often using questionnaire or standardise interviews. Surveys provide a good what to summarize the status of large group of individuals, companies, etc. (Johns and Lee-Ross, 1998-58) According to Jennings (2001) surveys are methods of data collection in which information is gathered through oral or written questioning. Surveys may also include self-completed questionnaires administered by post, e-mail or in person as well as structured interviews carried out in person or over the telephone. Surveys completed in person can use interviewer completed questionnaires as the tool to gather information. Mail or email surveys use questionnaires to gather data. Pilot surveys, which are small trail runs of a larger survey, are often carried to try our wording of questions, the understanding of terms used, to test sequencing of questions and to gain a preliminary estimate of the likely response rate. A pilot is a simple way of testing whether the articulation of the method(s) selected for use in a research programme is adequate to meeting research objectives. (Clark, Riley, Wilkie and Wood,2003) 184.108.40.206 Questionnaires: Questionnaires rely quite heavily on respondents being literate or familiar with the language used in questionnaire . Questionnaires can be used only when respondents are available and willing to participate as research subjects. The main advantages of using questionnaires are: Can cover a large number of people Relatively cheap Avoids respondents embarrassment Possible anonymity of respondent No interview bias When using questionnaires to perform primary data collection it is very important to remember some major disadvantages of using that method. First of it is very difficult to design a perfect questionnaire from a very first time. Bell (1992) suggests that producing a really good questionnaire is harder than it might be imagined. Another problem with questionnaire is regarding the actual questions itself, which have to be relatively simple. The advantage of questionnaire being anonymous can bring also a disadvantage of not being able offer assistance if needed. The major advantage to use questionnaires is that the reliability and validity of data collected depend upon respondents memories and forthrightness . Generally questionnaires are used when the researcher is specific on the subjects of the investigation; the research is covering a relatively large number of people gathering facts or opinions; or when the researcher is trying to establish the extent of something . Special data processing is often needed because of the considerable amount of missing data or simply to evaluate data received and present it in graphs/charts . Questionnaires may be self employed or interviewer completed. The interviewer completed questionnaires give an opportunity for face to face interaction, which can contribute to increased participation; it can also bring it clarification sought by the respondent regarding language problems or terms used . However, that sort of activity would involve high travel cost and tends to be rather time consuming, as well as refuses the possibility of anonymity. Whereas self completed questionnaires at their own time peace. On contrary, respondents are not able to seek assistance or clarification on the questions if needed. Respondents may not understand the language of the questionnaire and therefore it may result in questionnaire being partly completed or non-completed at all, which would lower the response rate . For this particular research it was decided to develop a structured questionnaire and take survey as many emigrate from Bangladesh as possible. In total target are 200 interviews; participation from emigrate person from Bangladesh in this survey via email, face to face interview. 3.2.3 Sampling: Sampling is a process that involves the selection of some members of the larger population . In most survey research and some observational research it is necessary to sample. Usually sampling approach is used where research is concerned with a very wide group of population . Clark, Riley, Wilkie and Wood (2003) suggest that samples are frequently studied in order to learn something about the characteristics of the larger groups of which they are part. Sampling can be random and non-random. The key feature of non-random sampling is that items for research are chosen not randomly but purposively . Random sampling is a sampling technique where a group of subjects for a study is selected by the researcher from a larger group (a population). Each individual is chosen entirely by a chance and each member of the population has a chance of being included in the sample . In the non-random sampling, the members of the population do not have the same chance of being selected. Random sampling can be split into three types: simple random sampling (SRS), stratified sampling, systematic sampling and cluster sampling. SRS is the selection of elements from population where each element in that population has an equal of elements from population where each element in that population has an equal chance to actually being selected . It is usually used smaller numbers of people, very tedious and time consuming for large sample. A stratified sample is obtained by taking samples from each sub group of a population . According to Clark, Reily, Wilikie and Wood (2003) the objective of stratified sampling is to ensure that the sample drawn is as representative as possible of the population under study. Systematic or sometimes so called quasi-random sampling method is not wholly random. Only the first item selected from population is random, thereafter subsequent selections are related systematically to the first. Cluster sampling or clustering is a technique often used when a large geographical area is at the heart of the sampling requirement . It is also used when a random sample would produce a list of subject so widely scattered that surveying them would prove to be far too expensive. This sampling technique may well be more practical and economical than simple random sampling or stratified sampling. For this particular research, sampling has been simplified to non random sample where an author has chosen only emigrated person from Bangladesh to UK. Therefore the participants have been chosen on purpose for that specific reason of the survey. Such way of sampling can be called convenience sampling, where the sample comprises of subjects who are simply available in a convenient way to the researcher . On the other hand the main disadvantage of such a technique is that the researcher does not have a full idea how representative the information collected about the sample is to the population as a whole. However the information could still provide some fairly significant insights and be a good source of data. Nevertheless, sample did not depend on one particular area; in that case it is possible to state the sample was random, emigrate person have been chosen from various location in the UK. 220.127.116.11 Population: To draw up any conclusion from the particular research made, it is essential beforehand to specify the population and the sample for the particular research. A population is any entire collection of people, animals, plants or things from which researcher may collect data. It is the entire group that surveyor is interested in, which he/she wishes to describe or draw conclusions about. (www.stats.gla.ac.uk.2009). The population for this research is considered to be all Bangladeshi emigrate person at various city from UK. Participants of survey will be emigrate Bangladeshi at UK, whose visa status in the UK student, work permit holder, spouse, converted citizen, asylum seekers, etc. 18.104.22.168 Sample: A sample is a sub group of selected respondents derived from the target population (https://knowledge-base.supersurvey.com/glossary.htm.2009), that researcher will actually in order to gather information (https://score.kings.k12.ca.us/lessons/wwwstarts/population.htm.2009). There will be 200 questionnaires send out to emigrate Bangladeshi, however not all of the recipients have completed the questionnaire. Therefore the sample is comprised of - (no of) forms that have been returned to the researcher in fully completed status. According to Home Office-Research Development Statistics 9930 person admitted in the UK on various visa status. 3.2.4 Reliability Validity: Reliability and validity are two twins on which good research lies (Eachus,no date). According to Gumesson (1991), a method is reliable when: two or more researcher studying the same phenomenon with similar purposes reach, approximately the same result. 22.214.171.124 Reliability: Hammersley (1992:67) states that reliability : Refers to the degree of consistency with which instances are assigned to the same category by different observers or by the same observer on different occasions. Clark, Riley, Wilkie and Wood (2003) suggest that reliability is concerned with peoples behaviour and their attitudes; therefore the data gathered by the researcher is reliant on peoples responses, which may vary after a period if time . Considering reliability for this particular research it is possible to mention that interviews and questionnaires took place in the same month, therefore avoiding the time gap between the researches. However, when it comes to questionnaires, the idea of self-completed forms needs to be mentioned. The information provide by the respondents might be misleading because of the issue of self-categorization. The answer given by the respondent at that time may change within the period due to the nature of different attitudes and peoples perceptions. The reliability issue was taken in mind when planning, implementing and analysing questionnaires. Pilot questionnaire were issued to test the wording of questions, understanding of the language, knowledge of terms used in the survey and general attitude of employees towards the questionnaire of such a type. 126.96.36.199 Validity: Validity is the extent to which research findings would be the same if the research to be repeated later within different sample . Hammersley (1990) refers to the validity as to the truth and interprets it as the extent to which an account accurately represents the social phenomena to which it refers. Mason (1996) suggests that validity address whether the item measure or explains what it is supposed to measure or explain. Polgar and Thomas (1995) suggest that when evaluating validity two questions are often asked: 1) Can the results of an investigation be generalised to other samples or situations? (External Validity) 2) How far does the researchers presence influence the generation of the data? The interview situation is not always conducive to thoughtful responses, because respondents may tend to give answer which they believe will please the interviewer. On the other hand, questionnaires would give different answers, since data gathers information from individuals about their attitudes, behaviour and characteristics .
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Troy Patterson wears many hats, though hed hate that cliche. Hes a book critic for NP, TV critic at Slate.com and the film critic at Spin magazine. He also written for a host of other publications including The New York Times Book Review, Mens Vogue, Wired, and Entertainment Weekly. Patterson, who calls Brooklyn home, is a wickedly funny and nimble writer who crafts sentences like this one about Jon and Kate Gosselin, the feuding couple at the center of Jon Kate Plus 8: She is a moaning 34-year-old harpy with highlights as wide as mountain-bike tires sporting an asymmetrical haircut suggestive of a wounded stork. He is a sullen 32-year-old layabout whose skate-punk sideburns and gelled forelocks signal boring bad news. And, on the show, both struggle to act half their age. Or read his take on The X Factor: People like to talk about how reality TV attracts exhibitionists. This was literalized last night when a pervert at the Seattle audition dropped his pants, inspiring Paula Abdul to discreetly vomit. If we set him aside, the most memorable rejectees were the geriatric husband-and-wife team of Dan and Venita. They warbled off key through Unchained Melody, wore clothes too transfixingly tacky to rate as vintage, and were mildly lobotomized in manner. If this were a tryout for a dinner-theater adaptation of a David Lynch film, they would have definitely gotten a callback. Heres a QA with Patterson. Q: Tell me a little about your background: A: As a kid and teenager in Richmond, Virginia, I was a big reader -- Twain, Poe, Hemingway, Vonnegut, Salinger, Judy Blume, detective novels, out-of-town newspapers, Cheerios boxes, whatever. I got hooked on magazines by way of Tom Wolfe and Spy. I went to college at Princeton, where I majored in English Lit and edited the campus weekly. After graduating, I lived in Santa Cruz, California, for a little while, working in a coffee shop and freelancing for the local alt-weekly. Those were the clips I used when I applied for a magazines jobs in New York. I worked at Entertainment Weekly for seven years, where I started as an assistant and later became a book critic and staff writer, and I left EW on my 30th birthday to freelance and to fool around writing fiction. In 2006, I went to Slate, where Im on contract, and subsequently picked up regular gigs reviewing movies for Spin and books for NPR. Q: Where did you learn to write? A: I think that all writers educate themselves through practice, practice, practice. It helps to have good instructors along the way (mine include nursery-school teachers to Toni Morrison) and to hunker down with the usual guidebooks (Strunk White, William Zinsser, etc). Q: Whats a typical workday like for you? A: I dont have a typical workday. Sometimes I write all day, sometimes I write for 90 minutes. Sometimes its all reading and reporting and research. Some days Im running around watching movies or recording podcasts or schmoozing with editors. Then theres keeping up with the news, fending off publicists, replying to hate mail, and staring at the ceiling trying to come up with ideas. Q: What do you most like/dislike about what you do? A: May I quote Dorothy Parker? I hate writing; I love having written. Q: Is it hard being a freelancer? A: You betcha. And success, though dependent on hard work, is also contingent upon pure luck to a ridiculous degree. Q: Any advice to aspiring writers/critics? A: Forget it; go to law school. But if youve got too much passion to resist becoming an arts journalist, then try to learn something about a broad range of history and culture--Shakespeare, horror flicks, fashion, philosophy, politics, everything. And dont worry about developing your voice; if you study your elders closely and try to write naturally, itll develop itself.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
One of the most influential presidents in United States history, John F. Kennedy was a brilliant politician and public speaker. In his inaugural address, he sparked hope around the world by discussing the hardships faced by all of society in the present time and then leaving them with a message of freedom, power, and hope. This measure of impact is not achieved easily; Kennedy masterfully utilized the art of rhetoric to emphasize his message and win the hearts of his people. In the middle of the speech, he discusses the dangers of the modern world and his drive toward international peace and cooperation. These messages are stressed through his use of charismatic language to signify his vision of a new and better world. As he begins hisÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦He develops this further throughout his next few paragraphs, beginning them all with the words Ã¢â¬Å"let both sides,Ã¢â¬ addressing not only his nation but also those who oppose him, letting them know that they must make the same effort if they wish for peace. Throughout these statements, he uses diction to create contrast in ideas, telling both sides to focus more on what Ã¢â¬Å"unites usÃ¢â¬ rather than what Ã¢â¬Å"divide[s] usÃ¢â¬ (15). His next statement employs logos to express the need for a clear restriction of nuclear arms, followed by the repetition of the word Ã¢â¬Å"absoluteÃ¢â¬ in his press to bring Ã¢â¬Å"absolute powerÃ¢â¬ under Ã¢â¬Å"absolute controlÃ¢â¬ (16). Next he utilizes ethos in addressing the curious, pioneer spirit of human society, naming several examples of future scientific innovations such as Ã¢â¬Å"[exploring] the starsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"[eradicating] diseaseÃ¢â¬ (17) to inspire a sens e of eagerness to shift human researchÃ¢â¬â¢s concentration from violence to civilizational accomplishment. He ends this discussion with an allusion to the Bible, an appeal to the faith of a majority of his listeners, and reciting a quote that is relevant to all, regardless of faith: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Ëundo the heavy burdens . . . [and] let the oppressed go freeÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (18), another encouragement to contribute to a more moral society. To conclude his call toShow MoreRelatedRhetorical Analysis Of Jfk Inaugural Address909 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMiguel Garcia English 1020 Campbell 10/05/17 Rhetorical Analysis of Ã¢â¬Å"Inaugural AddressÃ¢â¬ by John F. Kennedy ItÃ¢â¬â¢s January 20, 1961. Inauguration day for president Kennedy. Entering his first term as president of the United States, he has to give the Ã¢â¬Å"Inaugural Address.Ã¢â¬ As president of the United States he needs to address his voters and the american people in person or through a television broadcast about his future goals and aspirations. During the transfer of power the US is going on there 14thRead MoreRhetorical Analysis Of Jfk Inaugural Address1414 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesJFK Inaugural Address Rhetorical Analysis On Friday, January 20, 1961, in the midst of physical cold and mental Cold War fears, John F. Kennedy gave his inaugural address to the citizens of America and the world, assuring his audience that peace will prevail, and that America, as a unified superpower, will lead the world once again into a new era of peace. His speech, infused with rhetorical appeals, has an anxious and discontent tone, calling for change and the implementation of his vision. ToRead MoreRhetorical Analysis Of Jfk Inaugural Address1426 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespublicly, and communicate comprehensible meanings while inspiring the people of his nation, President John F. Kennedy (JFK) gave his inaugural address on January 20th, 1961 in Washington D.C.. JFK was widely distinguished for his ability to use rhetoric in front of the masses, and in mass media. Like many authors and penman, President Kennedy implemented huge doses of rhetorical strategies in his speech, focusing on the appeals of Aristotle: ethos, logos an d pathos. Ethos is used to convince theRead MoreEssay about John F. Kennedy Analysis704 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Leah Moore JFK Inaugural Address Analysis President John F. Kennedy gave his inaugural address on a January afternoon in 1961. His speech includes many rhetorical devicesÃ¢â¬âincluded to help convey KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s subject to his audience. The subject is that human rights are determined by God, rather than the government. Some rhetorical devices Kennedy uses are parallelism, anaphora, and hortative sentences. John F. KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s use of rhetorical devices within his inaugural address help him convey his messageRead MoreRhetorical Analysis Of John F. Kennedy s Inaugural Address Essay1566 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages NOT PRIDE BUT FREEDOM: Rhetorical Analysis of John F. KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s Inaugural Address Tanner A. Woody Anderson University On January 20, 1961, John Fitzgerald Kennedy delivered a speech with a backdrop of snow and a twenty-degree wind blowing in his face in Washington D.C. In his speech, he starts off with saying that his victory is not for a party but it is for freedom. At the climax of his speech, JFK delivers a call to action which is also the most well-known line from his speech:Read MoreRhetorical Analysis Of John F. Kennedy s Inaugural Address971 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesA Rhetorical Analysis of John F. KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s Inaugural Address By 1961, The United States of America was struggling with racial tension and social inequalities, while fighting communism internationally and protecting the public from the weapons and devices of our adversaries abroad. Confusion and fear had invaded the minds of the American people as the cold war neared its pinnacle; they were desperate for a strong, reassuring leader. John F. Kennedy provided this reassurance when he addressed the nationRead MoreJFK inaugural Address853 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Rhetorical Analysis on JFKÃ¢â¬â¢s Inaugural Address Majority of the people know the eminent line Ã¢â¬Å"ask not what your country can do for you- ask what you can do for your countryÃ¢â¬ (Kennedy). That is indubitably one of the most well known segments of his speech, however, there are other parts that made it memorable. He knew he was not only speaking to America, but other countries as well. His speech keeps the audience both focused on what is important and understanding of the point he is trying to makeRead MoreRhetorical Analysis Of President Kennedy s Inaugural Speech2018 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesWhat rhetorical features does President Kennedy use to achieve his desired purpose? Introduction Politicians often use language to both persuade and imperceptibly control the opinions/decisions of their audience: whether it is to gain their support, to present their point, or implant their principles. It is of utmost importance to them to do this subtly, in order to not come across as too aggressive, intimidating or manipulative. As a result, the politician has to use language that is relatable
CellBazaar, Burgeoning Mobile Marketplace of Bangladesh Abstract CellBazaar, MIT Media Lab project, is the biggest mobile based online marketplace in Bangladesh. It is nothing but a platform that contains the information of its customers who are willing to sell their products or services and buyers or people at large go through that information posted by the sellers to search out the product serve their interest best. Cellbazaar is in service industry as well as in IT industry. We will write a custom essay sample on Cellbazaar, Burgeoning Mobile Marketplace of Bangladesh or any similar topic only for you Order Now The main goal of providing service of this organization is to provide error free services to the customer and to fulfill that goal all the activities are run in the organization. Section One: Introduction CellBazaar, often called the Mobile Craigslist of Bangladesh, has provided a martketplace to buy and sell goods and service to Bangladeshis for three and a half years now. Since then, the service has grown and has now user base of just under 4 million. Cell Bazaar processes 1000 posts/day, and founder Kamal Qadir was chosen by the World Economic Forum as a Young Global Leader in 2009. It started its operation in June 2006 that allows people to buy and sell over mobile phones. Nearly 23 million Grameenphone users can buy any agricultural product, such as rice, fish, or chicken, as well as large-scale purchases like an apartment, land, or car, and consumer goods such as a television or refrigerator. People can also offer services, like tutoring, house rent etc. The service is run by the customers: they post items for sale, delete items after they are sold, adjust prices if items fail to sell, and do much more besides. Initially started working in mobile phone platform now it has entered into the Web platform to reach the global audience. Section Two: Overview of Cellbazaar in Bangladesh 2. 1 Idea Generation Kamal Quadir, Bangladeshi by born, originally designed CellBazaar at MIT as a graduate student. In developing countries, the limits on communication technology hinder business. People must travel great distances to get market information. Isolated and uninformed, farmers, traders and business people have little information, and thus no power to bargain with middlemen. CellBazaar was devised to solve this problem. Using this platform, everyone gathers market information so they can make smart business decisions. In the process they provide a birdsÃ¢â¬â¢ eye view of the entire market for both sellers and buyers (Qadir K. Mohaiemen N. , 2009). 2. 2 Formation Kamal Quadir registered CellBazaar as a U. S. business and moved into rapid-action mode. He raised the necessary capital from Omidyar Network, Barred Rock Capital and Gray Matters Capital in the U. S. Soon, they had registered the company as a Foreign Direct InvestorÃ¢â¬âa process which is normally quite byzantine in Bangladesh had filed a patent application with the Bangladesh patent office, and had signed an exclusive partnership with Grameenphone, the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s largest mobile operator with 60% market share (Qadir K. Mohaiemen N. , 2009). 2. 3 Growth of Cellbazaar Over the year 2010, Grameenphone is the largest mobile phone operator in Bangladesh with over 23 million subscribers. Dubbed the Ã¢â¬Å"Craigslist of BangladeshÃ¢â¬ , it is a mobile application that brings buyers and sellers together in a mobile environment where they can publish and retrieve information on goods or services. 35,396 posts for multiple products in 141 categories are available for viewing, ranging from livestock to education services to agri-produce to electronics. Users pay standard SMS, WAP and voice rates to access the service. Accodring to the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s number one web site rating organization Alexa the web page of the CellBazar is in the 53th position in Bangladesh and its 98. % of the browse are made from Bangladesh. According to the www. alexa. com (viewed 16 December 2010, at BDT 2:58 pm) daily page viewed of cellbazaar is 13,011 and its daily advertisement cost is $238. 12. The diversity of products posted has resulted in constant innovation and change. As the company grows and matures, it looks set to be the first Internet model startup in BangladeshÃ¢â¬â¢s history, with global media interest, local imitators, overseas expansion plans, and international-standard management and staffing. 2. Platform of Operation (http://corp. cellbazaar. com/) Short Message Service (SMS): SMS has been phenomenally popular since its introduction in Bangladesh. CellBazaar leverages the simple, widespread power of SMS to bring the market to phone. Wireless Application Protocol (WAP): WAP is the next generation of mobile phone technology. 12% of all mobile sets in Bangladesh are already WAP-enabled, and this number is growing rapidly. WAP provides an even faster experience as you browse a simple graphic menu to access the entire market space. WEB: WEB version shows the entire market at a glance on computer screen. Anyone with internet access can browse the market, and post items for sale. Interactive Voice Response (IVR): Any Grameenphone user can dial 3838 and listen to the latest items on the market in Bengali. After dialing 3838, users choose from 8 categories: Jobs, Mobile Phones, Agriculture, Motorcycle, Car, Electronics, Computers, and To-Let. Every few hours, users will hear new information through this service. 2. 5 Partners (http://corp. ellbazaar. com/) Grameenphone (GP): Grameenphone is the largest mobile telecommunication operator in Bangladesh by revenue and subscribers base. It incorporated on October 10, 1996 as a private limited company and commenced service on the independence day of Bangladesh- March 26, 1997. Grameenphone Community Information Centre (GP CIC): It is a shared premise for both Cellbazaar and GP. Katalyst: Katalyst aims at poverty reduction via private sector growth, mainly through small medium enterprises (SME) development. KATALYST is funded by DFID, SDC, Swedish Sida and Canadian CIDA and is implemented by Swisscontact and GTZ International Services and works together with the Bangladesh Ministry of Commerce Thakral: It is a Joint Venture between the Thakral Group of Singapore (operating in 30 countries) and Esquire Group of Bangladesh. Thakral is IBMÃ¢â¬â¢s exclusive representative in Bangladesh and works on software development on mainframes, data warehousing, etc. BracNet provides enterprise organizations with a high-speed dedicated Internet access via a Cisco Powered backbone engineered for mission critical data. It is an affiliation of Brac, the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest non-government organization BRAC Bank Limited (BBL): BBL with institutional shareholdings by BRAC, International Finance Corporation (IFC) and Shorecap International has been the fastest growing Bank in 2004 and 2005. The Bank operates under a Ã¢â¬Å"double bottom lineÃ¢â¬ agenda where profit and social responsibility go hand in hand as it strives towards a poverty-free, enlightened Bangladesh. Prothom Alo: Bangla daily newspaper Ã¢â¬Å"Prothom AloÃ¢â¬ is BangladeshÃ¢â¬â¢s largest circulation Bengali language newspaper and a key influence on cultural trends. CellBazaar provides Prothom Alo classifieds on the mobile phone. The Daily Star: English daily newspaper Ã¢â¬Å"The daily StarÃ¢â¬ is BangladeshÃ¢â¬â¢s largest circulation English language newspaper. CellBazaar provides Daily Star classifieds on the mobile phone. Section Three: Conclusion and Recommendation 3. 1 Conclusion CellBazaar is a virtual marketplace that allows buyers and sellers to connect with one another and buy and sell goods and services using their mobile phones. CellBazaar enables entrepreneurs and small businesses in Bangladesh to start and grow operations in a market that wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t otherwise be available in their local community, thereby creating jobs, stimulating the economy, and delivering products and services that improve the lives of millions of poor people. The service is not just mobile classified ads but a social development service. It cuts outs the middlemen for buyers and sellers which means more profit and savings for them. 3. 2 Recommendation CellBazaar successfully provides over 3. million buyers and sellers in Bangladesh masses of market information at their fingertips, unlike similar environments in developing markets. However, CellBazaar is limited to search facilities only. Its effectiveness in providing users with the full potential of mCommerce is restricted by two key factors: 1. A lack of a secure and trusted payment method to complete transactions on the system; and 2. A lack of cost-effective, reliable infrast ructure to permit delivery of goods to take place through the system. In addition, a critical success factor that is required in order to enable transactions to be completed on the system is trust between parties: trust that sellers will deliver goods that fit the description and quality standards previously communicated, and trust that the buyer will make the payment. In other more sophisticated cellbazaar trusts is ensured by feedback mechanisms; this includes buyer and seller ratings, comment facilities, etc. A lack of policies which offer some kind of safeguards, should there be a breach in trust by either party will deter parties from engaging in transactions in an eMarketplace. References 1. Qadir K. Mohaiemen N. , Ã¢â¬Å"Cellbazar: A Market in your PacketÃ¢â¬ , innovation/mobile world congress, 2009, pp. 59-71 2. Stevenson. J. W. , Ã¢â¬Å"Operation ManagementÃ¢â¬ , McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2009, pp. 397-471 3. http://corp. cellbazaar. com/ 4. www. wikipedia. org 5. www. alexa. com 6. CB Amazon Ã¢â¬â lirneasia. net Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â WEB IVR WAP SMS Platform GP BRAC Net Thakral Katalyst GPCIC Prothom Alo The Daily Star BRAC Bank Content Partners Technological Partners Educational Partners Core Partners Partners How to cite Cellbazaar, Burgeoning Mobile Marketplace of Bangladesh, Essay examples
3 Non Traditional Religions Voodoo, Spiritualism, Essay CultsReligion is primary agent of social control in our society. Due to its communally held beliefs and principles, we have a foundation on which we can rest the laws, values, and the main doctrine, of almost any society. Here in America, we have tremendous freedom in both establishing and in choosing the religion of our choice. This freedom has given birth to many non-traditional religions and practices. When discussing the topic of social control and order within a society, these non-traditional religions can be used very strongly to bring about social change within an individual then into the population. On the rise in our nation, is the emergence of voodoo practices, the belief in spiritualism, and many groups of cults. Each one of these religions has the extreme ability to influence the individual in many psychological and physical ways, drastically changing a persons behavioral patterns. While inducing these changes upon the individual, many people can and usually will, succumb explicit exploitation of themselves as well as their economic resources. Voodoo, whose name derived from the African word for spirit (Origins of Voodoo), came to us through the European colonization of the West Indies. African tribes were forcibly shipped overseas, primarily to Haiti and other Caribbean lands, to be used as agricultural slaves. Upon the arrival in their new country, the slaves were baptized into the Roman Catholic Church. In fear of revolt, the colonists separated the many tribes of slaves and had them dispersed all across the new land. This result was a mixture of African slaves, forced to live together, naturally adapting to each others lifestyles, habits, and beliefs systems. The slaves were forced to attend a Catholic Mass on a regular basis, however, many of the assimilated tribes continued to practice their native religion. When the colonists found this out, the persecution of many African slaves took place. They were violently beaten and killed for worshiping their own gods, and not the one of the Catholic religion. It was through this persecution that the tribes did not separate; rather, they came together and formed together with the common bond of their religion. The religious beliefs and the rituals from many of the tribes began it integrate, ultimately creating a new religion: Voodoo. Voodoo is based on the manifestation of the spirit world through the channel of the human being. This is achieved through the acts of rituals in highly structured Voodoo ceremonies, which are preformed by a Voodoo Priest. A male priest is referred to as a Houngan, and a female is referred to as a Mambo. There are two types of Voodoo or magic, used in Voodoo, White Magic, and Black Magic. White Magic involves the usage of candles, oils, plants, and potions, to obtain certain things in life. For example, one might attend or perform a White Magic ceremony to obtain power, love, or money. This ritual or ceremony is used in a positive manner only, it causes no harm, nor does it pose any threat upon the individual or on others. Black Magic or Red Voodoo, on the other hand, involves evil and harmful acts. Black magic is preformed by a Bokor, which is one who uses evil acts of sorcery, involving death and zombie curses. A zombie curse involves a ritual where the Bokor poisons his human subject, resulting in death. After three days, the dead is revived and becomes the Bokors eternal slave (Haitian Voodoo Culture). The followers of the Voodoo religion believe in one Supreme Being, named Bondye. Under Bondye, there are hundreds of minor gods and Loas. A Loas refers to the spirit of someone who has led an exceptional life. The Loas exercise control over nature, health, wealth, happiness, and all prosperity of mortals. The human followers and the Laos exercise a dependency-based relationship with one another. The Loas provide prosperity, and the humans provide food, and other material objects to the Laos as an offering. The altars that are each dedicated to one specific Loa are encompassed with candles, pictures of the Loa, and anything else referring to the Loa. A prime example of a Loa is one named Zaka. Zaka is the god or spirit of agriculture; he provides prosperity over the crops of any given land. One might want to make contact with this Loa to ensure abundance in the years crop. Through the ritual and the altar, one might present an offering of seeds, fruit, or a shovel. In return, the Loa will provide health, fortune, and protection of evil spirits over his followers. In the doctrine of Voodoo, the human soul is made up of two parts: the Gros-bon-ange and the Ti-bon-age. The Ti-bon-age is the part of the soul that leaves the body during sleep and the part that can also be possessed by a Loa in a ceremony. The Gros-bon-ange is the part of the soul, which upon death, rejoins with the sprit world and can be reused. It a common belief in Voodoo, that the soul can be taken over by evil spirits when it is freed from the body. It is through the act of rituals in ceremonies that a voodoo priest is able to make contact with the spiritual world. A Voodoo ceremony takes place in a temple called a Honfor. At the center of Honfor is a spirit pole called a Poto-Mitan. The Poto-Mitan represents the center of the universe and it is through this pole, that humans are able to connect with the spirit world. A voodoo ceremony has several key elements that make it possible to connect with the spirit world. A general voodoo ceremony would be acted out as follows:A feas t would be held before the main ceremony. This feast may include the sharing of food, and or alcohol. The ceremony will them begin with the introduction of the Veve banners or flags. A Hounsis (A Voodoo priestess), will bring these flags out and wave them around to assist in the summoning of Loa. The flags are created by the Houngan and are made out of silk or satin material. They are decorated with sequins, beads, and seed pearls. Meanwhile, in the background there is a constant rhythm of drumbeats. The music and dancing play an important role in the ceremony. It is through the music that one is able to be put into a trance-like state and become possessed by the Loa. Within the ceremony, there are usually three particular drums used. Within the ceremony, their are generally three drum used. The Manman, which is the largest of the three, it is about three feet tall, and is beating standing up using a small wooden hammer in one hand and the other bare hand. The Segond drum, which is about two feet tall, is played by a seated drummer holding the drum between the legs. The drum is beaten using both hands. The smallest drum is named bula. It is beaten using two very long thin sticks. Dancing is performed by the Houngan and Hounsis. The Houngan focuses the dance around the spirit pole. It is through the dancing of the Houngan that intensity builds up resulting in the Hounsis becoming possessed by a loa. The Houngan also uses the aid of an Asson. An Asson is sacred rattle constructed out of a gourd that is decorated with coral and snake bones. The Houngan will also create a Veve, which is a sand painting. The Veve is constructed on the floor of the Hounfor and is created around the spirit pole. The Veve is made out of flour or cornmeal and is dedicated to the Loa in which the ceremony is being acted out. A Voodoo ceremony may include an animal sacrifice. The Houngan may sacrifice a goat, sheep, pig, or chicken to satisfy the hunger of their Loa. The throat of the an imal is slit, and the blood is collected in a special ceremonial cup, the Hounsis, or person possess, will then drink the blood. This is believed to satisfy the hunger of the Loa. (Vodun (Voodoo))Haiti still remains the dominant country in which Voodoo is practiced in. Voodoo was able to bring together many people in a time of sorrow and persecution. Throughout the years, many people have suffered for their beliefs in the Voodoo religion. Voodoo still stands strong in many cultures and is a dominant force in many peoples lives. Voodoo encompasses the whole family and embraces the influence of ancestors in ones individual life. Voodoo is not only a religion, but a way of life. The use of extravagant and clairvoyant formal ceremonies is used in many non-traditional religions to manifest the realm of the spiritual world, right here the natural. As seen, Voodoo has its own distinct ways of communicating with the spiritual realm. Many other religions also use spiritual items or objects o f nature, as means of transcending into the spiritual realm; which brings us to the next topic of spiritualism. The Prevalent Issues of Surrogate Parenting EssayOut of the millions of people who fall victim to the persuasion of the cult way of life, very few escape this lifestyle. Those who do are exposed with long tern psychological effects, creating many problems for the individual, as they try to readjust to normal every day life. Frequently, cult survivors initially suffer from depression. The fact of no longer belonging to an elite group, or not having a sense of purpose within themselves, causes the individuals to fall into massive depressive states. Those who have been involved in the cult for quite sometime will also suffer from loneliness, as they have left their former source of family and friendship. Indecisiveness is also a major symptom; normal decisions become very complicated for this individual because everything had been previously decided for them (what to wear, what to eat, etc.). And fear of their former cult reigns inside them. At the very thought of betrayal and the coe rced effects if it, leaves the individual with an underlying sense of fear and insecurity. Surviving members are highly recommended to get some sort of psychological counseling immediately after exiting the cult. Those who do receive counseling have a quicker and a greater success in merging back into society as productive individuals. Non-traditional religions thrive on the limiting involvement of the government concerning religion. Many of these religions have highly unorthodox practices in which followers faithfully participate it. In any other circumstances excluding religion, many of these practices would be deemed abnormal or deviant behavior. Legally very little can be done about the un-ethical practices found in these non-traditional religions. As a society we have to be very careful and aware at all times, recognizing the pressures that religion can force upon an individual. We also have to be conscious, and the face the fact that we are very vulnerable; each one of us can easily fall into the sway of lifestyles of these non-traditional religions, against our own will. BibliographyA.F.F. (The American Family Foundation), http://www.csj.org. (1999)Billingsly, Lloyd., Religions Rebel Son, Multomah Press. Portland, OR. (1986)Belgum, E., Voodoo, Greenhaven Press. San Diego, CA. (1994)Hassan, Steven. Freedom Of The Mind, http://www.freedomofmind.com/Mather, G.A. ; L.A. Nichols, Dictionary of Cults, Sects, Religions and the Occult, Zondervan. Grand Rapids, MI. (1993)McDowell, Josh and Bill Wilson, A Ready Defense. Heres Life Publishers. San Berdino, CA. (1990)Origins Of Voodoo, http://swagga.com/voodoo.htm (June 8, 2000)Origins Of Voodoo (Voodoo Secrets), http://www.nando.net/prof/ carice/origins.htmlSpiritualism. Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2000 http:// Encarta. msn.com (2000)Vodun. http://religioustolerance.org/voodoo.htmSociology
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
We all the group members forward our acknowledgement to Dr. Bhavesh Vanparia (Professor-Tolani Institute of Management Studies) for imparting us the knowledge of research and how to make one. We are whole heartedly thankful to him to guide us throughout the research and make it a valuable document. PREFACE Now a day the importance of research has increased in the day to day changing scenarios and business environment. Businesses demand for management person who are able to manage and develop in such continues changing environment in successful way. PGDM is such a course in which studentÃ¢â¬â¢s gets practical exposure of such changing dynamics of business environment by doing various projects and such researches. We selected this particular research which expanded our boundaries of thinking about implication of the theoretical knowledge in the practical field. Abstract In this study we have found out the youngsterÃ¢â¬â¢s preference towards fast food. We have conducted research on youngsters in between 15-24 years. We will write a custom essay sample on Reseach on Determinents of Junk Food Habbit of Youngsters or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page We have found that there is no significant difference between gender and their preference towards fast food eating. And maximum of them agree that education on healthy/organic food should be given. Maximum of them also disagree that fast food is healthy food to eat. Maximum of youngsters eat fast food with their friends, (54 out of 91). And most of male and female prefer home made food. Introduction. We observe that day by day consumption of fast-food among youngster is increasing and thus health related issues. To analyze this and related factors and issues we conducted a research on youngsters and their fast food eating habit. Today we can also see that fast food services/stores are growing in huge numbers. And maximum consumption of fast food is seen among teenagers or young people who for one and another reason frequently have fast food, it may be because of leisure, friends, living far from home, status, and many more. From the above mentioned determinants to find and brief out some important determinants we have conducted research and that too particularly of youngsters between 15-24 years. We defined youngsters as per the World Bank definition of youth that is the age in between 15-24 years. Fast foodÃ is the term given to food that can be prepared and served very quickly. While any meal with low preparation time can be considered to be fast food, typically theterm refers to food sold in aÃ restaurantÃ or store with preheated or precooked ingredients, and served to the customer in a packaged form forÃ take-out/take-away. (Wikipedia). Healthy food is defined by food which is beneficial to health and it also includes natural foods,Ã organic foods,Ã whole foods, and sometimesÃ dietary supplements. (Wikipedia, Wikipedia). This study will be help to brief out some specific determinants regarding fast food eating habits of youngster and may be how to divert youngsterÃ¢â¬â¢s preference to healthy dietary habits. Research Question: * What are the determinants of youngsterÃ¢â¬â¢s preference towards fast food eating? * What is the thinking of youth towards traditional food and fast food? * How many youngsters prefer vegetarian food? * Who prefer to have more fast food Male or Female? * What is the age from when youngsters eat fast food? Research Objective: * To know the determinants of youngsterÃ¢â¬â¢s preference towards fast food eating. * To know the thinking of youth towards traditional food and fast food. * To classify the youth by food habit on the basis of Vegetarian and Non vegetarian. To know the frequency of eating fast food of male and female. * To find the age from when youngsterÃ¢â¬â¢s start eating fast-food. Name of the Author(Year)| Title of The Paper. | Country| Sample Size| Analysis tools| Finding and Conclusion| Subhash Chandra Verma and Girja Shankar Yadav(2010)| Food habits among the educated youth of Tharu and Buksa tribes| India| 116| Descriptive Research Design. | So me youth are ignoring their own traditional food trends, but some youth are still respecting their culture and Traditional food trends. Effects of other cultures and education were the main reasons of changing food habits. | Hyun-sun Seo,Ã Soo-Kyung Lee,andSoyoung Nam(2011)| Factors influencing fast food consumption behaviors of middle-school students in Seoul: an application of theory of planned behaviors| Koria| 354| Regression Analysis| In relation to fast food use, attitude would be personal positive or negative feelings toward fast food use, while subjective norm would be how much a person desires to respect and follow the opinions of individuals who are important to him or her. Klazine van der Horst,AOenema,Ã I Ferreira,Ã W Wendel,KGiskes,Ã F van LentheÃ and J BrugÃ (2006)| A systematic review of environmental correlates of obesity-related dietary behaviors in youth| Netherland| Focus Group(54)| Multivariate Analysis| The research of determinants of dietary intake in children and adolescents has predominantly focused on individual level determinants of these behaviors, such as attitudes, taste prefe rences, social influences and perceived behavioral control.